Lyophyllum decastes


Fried Chicken Mushroom (Lyophyllum decastes, syn. Lyophyllum aggregatum) is a fungus in the family Lyophyllaceae.

The name due to its resemblance to cooked chicken when prepared. It is widespread and can be found in various habitats, including deciduous forests, grasslands, and urban areas.

This mushroom is characterized by its smooth, white to cream-colored cap that flattens with age, and its gills that are crowded together and can have a slightly fringed appearance. The stem is usually tapered and fibrous, sometimes with fine scales towards the base.

© Steve Roberts (Mushroom World)

Lophyllum decastes is saprotrophic, meaning it obtains nutrients by decomposing organic matter, particularly leaf litter and wood debris. It plays an important ecological role in forest ecosystems by contributing to nutrient cycling.

In culinary terms, L. decastes is valued for its edibility, especially when young and fresh. It is often fried or sautéed and used as a meat substitute due to its texture and savory flavor reminiscent of chicken. The mushroom delights foragers with its sometimes abundant sprouting occurrences, and whole baskets can be found directly at a site. However, there are a few reports of incompatibility.


Lyophyllum decastes is a good, very productive edible mushroom. Only the caps should be used, as the stems are tough.

Fried Chicken Mushrooms were considered inbred a few years ago, but the species is now produced on an industrial scale in Japan.


How to Grow Lyophyllum decastes?

  • Inoculation Phase

Sterilization: Sterilize the substrate to kill any potential contaminants. This can be done by autoclaving or pasteurizing the substrate.

Inoculation: Once the substrate is sterilized and cooled, inoculate it with Lyophyllum decastes spawn.

Mixing: Thoroughly mix the spawn into the substrate to ensure even distribution.

  • Spawn Run

Incubation: Place the inoculated substrate in a warm, dark environment with a temperature 24°C. This phase allows the mycelium to colonize the substrate fully.

Monitoring: Check the substrate regularly for signs of colonization. The mycelium will appear as a white, thread-like network spreading throughout the substrate.

PH Levels

Inoculation Phase

5.5 – 6.5

Spawn Run

5.5 – 6.5

Fruiting Phase

5.5 – 6.5



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Temp °C
18-25 10-20 15-21
Relative Humidity %
90-100 85-95 85-90
Duration d
50 14-21 12
CO2 ppm
>10000 2000
FAE per h
Light lux
<50 200-500

How to Fruit L. decastes?

  • Fruiting Phase

After the substrate is fully colonized, move it to a fruiting chamber or a suitable environment where conditions can be controlled.

Environment: Maintain a temperature of 60-70°F (15-21°C) and high humidity (85-95%). Ensure adequate fresh air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, which can inhibit fruiting.

Light: Provide indirect light to stimulate mushroom formation. Natural daylight or low-intensity artificial light is sufficient.

  • Harvest

Fruiting: Mushrooms will begin to form within a few weeks after moving to the fruiting phase. The caps will start as small pins and gradually expand.

Harvest Timing: Harvest the mushrooms when the caps are fully expanded but before they begin to release spores. This ensures the best texture and flavor.

Substrate Reuse: After the final flush, the spent substrate can be composted or used as mulch in gardens.

Sanitation: Clean and sanitize the growing area and containers thoroughly before starting a new batch to prevent contamination.

Cropping Cycle

Inoculation Phase

Spawn can be obtained from commercial suppliers or propagated from existing cultures.

Spawn Run

The spawn run typically takes 2-4 weeks, depending on environmental conditions and substrate composition.

Fruiting Phase

1-2 weeks to see initial pins, with full fruiting developing over the next 1-2 weeks.


Two to Three Flushes: Lyophyllum decastes can produce multiple flushes of mushrooms. After the first harvest, maintain the same environmental conditions to encourage additional flushes, typically occurring 4-10 days apart.

How to make Agar Culture Media?

  1. Dissolve the malt extract and agar in distilled water.
  2.  Sterilize the solution by autoclaving at 121°C for 15-20 minutes.
  3. Pour the sterilized media into petri dishes or other containers under sterile conditions.
  4. The Yeast is optional, but you can add it to any recipe for nutritions, same for Peptone.

Malt Extract Agar


  • malt extract
  • 2g yeast extract (optional for extra nutrients)
  • 15g agar
  • 1L distilled water

Potato Dextrose Agar


  • 200g potatoes (peeled and diced)
  • 20g dextrose (glucose)
  • 15g agar
  • 1L distilled water


  1. Boil potatoes in water until tender, then strain and retain the potato broth.
  2. Add dextrose and agar to the broth, and mix well.
  3. Autoclave at 121°C for 15-20 minutes.
  4. Pour into petri dishes under sterile conditions.

Yeast Malt Extract Agar


  • 10g malt extract
  • 4g yeast extract
  • 4g dextrose
  • 15g agar
  • 1L distilled water


  1. Dissolve all ingredients in distilled water.
  2. Autoclave at 121°C for 15-20 minutes.
  3. Pour into petri dishes under sterile conditions.

Oatmeal Agar


  • 30g oatmeal (finely ground)
  • 20g agar
  • 1L distilled water


  1. Boil oatmeal in water, then strain and retain the liquid.
  2. Add agar to the liquid, and mix well.
  3. Autoclave at 121°C for 15-20 minutes.
  4. Pour into petri dishes under sterile conditions.

Fruiting Containers

Plastic Tubs/Bins

Plastic storage bins or tubs are commonly used due to their availability and ease of use.

Setup: Drill small holes for airflow and cover them with micropore tape to prevent contamination.

Use: Fill with substrate mix, such as a combination of hardwood sawdust and grains.

Advantages: Easy to handle, can be stacked to save space, good control over humidity and airflow.

Grow Bags

Polypropylene grow bags with filter patches for gas exchange.

Setup: Fill the bags with a sterilized substrate, then inoculate with mycelium.

Use: Seal the bags and allow the mycelium to colonize the substrate fully before opening for fruiting.

Advantages: Sterile environment, good gas exchange, easy to transport and monitor growth.


Large plastic bins converted into fruiting chambers.

Setup: Similar to plastic tubs, with holes drilled for ventilation and covered with micropore tape.

Use: Suitable for bulk substrate cultivation, providing a larger area for fruiting.

Advantages: Larger fruiting surface, easy to control environmental conditions.


Shallow trays used within a larger fruiting chamber or greenhouse.

Setup: Fill trays with substrate, place them in a high-humidity environment.

Use: Typically used in controlled environments like greenhouses.

Advantages: Good for monitoring and harvesting, can be easily arranged to optimize space.


Hardwood logs inoculated with Lyophyllum decastes spawn.

Setup: Drill holes into logs, insert spawn, seal with wax.

Use: Outdoor cultivation, logs are buried partially or kept in shaded, moist environments.

Advantages: Natural growth medium, sustainable, minimal maintenance.


  • Hardwood Sawdust: Provides a rich source of nutrients, ideal for mycelial growth.
  • Straw: Commonly used due to its abundance and cost-effectiveness.
  • Composted Manure: Adds organic matter and nutrients.
  • Corncobs: Another agricultural waste product that supports good mycelial growth.
  • Paper and Cardboard: Recycled materials that provide a suitable medium for mushroom cultivation.
  • Coffee Grounds: Rich in nitrogen, beneficial for fungal growth.

Growing Additives

  • Wheat Bran: Adds essential nutrients and vitamins.
  • Rice Bran: Provides additional nutrients and improves substrate texture.
  • Gypsum (Calcium Sulfate): Helps to stabilize the pH and adds calcium, which is beneficial for mycelial growth.
  • Peat Moss: Increases moisture retention and provides a balanced growth medium.
  • Soybean Meal: A high-nitrogen additive that boosts protein content.
  • Yeast Extract: Enhances microbial activity and provides growth-promoting nutrients.
  • Calcium Carbonate: Helps to buffer the substrate pH, ensuring optimal conditions for fungal growth.

Biological efficiencie

Biological efficiency (BE) of Lyophyllum decastes refers to the ratio of the fresh weight of harvested mushrooms to the dry weight of the substrate used, typically expressed as a percentage. The biological efficiency (BE) of Lyophyllum decastes typically ranges from 60% to 80%, meaning that 60 to 80 grams of fresh mushrooms are produced per 100 grams of dry substrate used.

Sometimes we miss a piece

Growing Chracteristics

decomposing, growing mostly in clumps from a stalk


Natrual Habitat

As a soil-dwelling saprobiont, Lyophyllum decastes frequently occurs in deciduous and mixed forests as well as in meadows and prefers loose, humus-rich soils. The fruiting bodies appear in spring from April to May and in autumn from September to November.

Deciduous forest, prefers loose, moist soils, often on roads, roadsides, parks, spring :April to May & autumn: September to November

How to identify Lyophyllum decastes

To identify Lyophyllum decastes, look for its distinct cap, which ranges from 3 to 12 cm in diameter and varies in color from grayish-brown to dark brown. The cap shape transitions from convex to broadly convex and eventually flattens with age, featuring a smooth to slightly scaly texture. The gills are white to pale gray, densely crowded, and adnate to slightly decurrent. Its stipe is white to pale gray, sturdy, and 3-10 cm long with a slightly fibrous texture. This mushroom typically grows in dense clusters on the ground, often near decaying wood or leaf litter in forested areas.


3-9 (13) cm Ø
yellow leathery, pale brownish gray, orange brown
center of cap slightly humped or slightly depressed
old finned
slight radial veining is typical also in young specimens
curly wavy margin


broadly adnate or somewhat pendulous, partly humped beforehand


5-10 (13) cm long
1-4 (5) cm Ø
whitish to light brown
longitudinally fibrous
frosted tip




pure white
6-7 x 3.5-4 µm



Danger of confusion

Panzerrasling, Frostrasling, Nebelkappen

© Huafang


Gorumet Perception

The flavor of the Fried Chicken Mushroom is described as mildly nutty, and the flesh remains nice and firm even after cooking. In Japan, it is recommended to fry the mushroom rather than boil it.


neutral to somewhat floury, pleasant to slightly nutty


mild, pleasant


solid, white, tough, elastic

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Nutritional content of 100g

Calories: Around 23 kcal
Protein: Approximately 3.1 grams
Fat: Very low, typically less than 0.5 grams
Carbohydrates: About 2.7 grams
Fiber: Provides approximately 1.3 grams

Vitamins and Minerals: Contains small amounts of essential nutrients such as potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, and vitamins B1 (thiamine) and B2 (riboflavin).

Other Nutritional Notes:

Water Content: High, contributing significantly to its weight.
Sugar Content: Very low.
Sodium: Naturally occurring but in minimal amounts.

Health Benefits:

Low in Calories: Suitable for low-calorie diets.
Good Source of Protein: Helps in muscle repair and growth.
Dietary Fiber: Supports digestive health and provides a feeling of fullness.


Lyophyllum decastes, commonly known as the fried chicken mushroom or clustered domecap, presents a unique composition that distinguishes it in the realm of edible fungi. One of its notable features is its distinct flavor profile, often likened to that of cooked chicken, which lends itself well to culinary applications. Nutritionally, it is low in calories, typically containing around 23 kcal per 100 grams. It provides a moderate amount of protein (about 3.1 grams per 100 grams) and is very low in fat, making it a suitable option for low-fat diets. Additionally, Lyophyllum decastes contains dietary fiber (approximately 1.3 grams), which supports digestive health and helps maintain satiety. While specific unique compounds have not been extensively studied, its characteristic taste and texture make it a sought-after ingredient among mushroom enthusiasts and chefs alike, particularly for its ability to mimic the flavors of meat in vegetarian dishes. As with all wild mushrooms, proper identification and cooking methods are essential to ensure safety and enjoyment.

Immunostimulating Compounds


Lyophyllum decastes contains beta-glucans, which are polysaccharides known for their ability to enhance immune function by stimulating immune cells such as macrophages and natural killer cells.


This unique antioxidant compound found in mushrooms like Lyophyllum decastes has been studied for its potential role in reducing oxidative stress and supporting immune health.

Antimicrobial Peptides

Some mushrooms, including Lyophyllum decastes, produce antimicrobial peptides that can help the body fight against pathogens and infections.

Antioxidant Compounds

Phenolic Compounds

Lyophyllum decastes contains various phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, which act as antioxidants. They help neutralize harmful free radicals and reduce oxidative stress in the body.


Some mushrooms, including certain species of Lyophyllum, contain selenium, an essential mineral that acts as a component of antioxidant enzymes in the body.

Fatty Acids

Linoleic Acid

Lyophyllum decastes contains small amounts of essential fatty acids like linoleic acid, which are crucial for maintaining healthy cell membranes and supporting various bodily functions.

Oleic Acid

Another monounsaturated fatty acid found in mushrooms, oleic acid, contributes to their lipid profile and overall health benefits.

Palmitic Acid

A saturated fatty acid present in small quantities in Lyophyllum decastes, palmitic acid plays a role in cellular structure and function.

Unique/Important Compounds


These lipids are found in mushrooms and contribute to their unique flavor and texture.


A sugar alcohol present in mushrooms like Lyophyllum decastes, mannitol may have potential health benefits, including its role as an osmoprotectant.

Vitamin-Rich Components

Vitamin D

Mushrooms like Lyophyllum decastes can produce vitamin D when exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light, providing a natural dietary source of this essential nutrient.

B Vitamins

Lyophyllum decastes contains various B vitamins such as riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), and pantothenic acid (B5), which are essential for energy metabolism and overall health.

Vitamin B12

Some mushrooms, although in trace amounts, can contain vitamin B12, which is important for neurological function and red blood cell formation.

other names

Brauner Rasling
Büscheliger Rasling
Fried Chicken Mushroom
clustered domecap
Lyophylle en touffes
Japanisch ハタケシメジ
Rudeninė kupstabudė
Mono Seexayu'
Nahuatl Xoletl
Bruine bundelridderzwam
grå knippesopp
Рядовка скученная
mörk tuvskivling
Spanisch Hongo clavito
Spanisch Huacha
líha nahloučená
Sötét csoportospereszke
Wissenschaftl. Name
Clitocybe multiceps
Wissenschaftl. Name
Lyophyllum aggregatum
Wissenschaftl. Name
Lyophyllum decastes

Lyophyllum Decastes, Lyophyllum Aggregatum, Brauner Rasling, Büschelrasling, Geselliger Rasling, Ockerbrauner Büschelrasling, Büscheliger Rasling

Taxonomical Hierarchy

Kingdom Fungi
Division Basidiomycota
Class Agaricomycetes
Order Agaricales
Family Lyophyllaceae
Genus Lyophyllum
Species L. decastes
Ecology Saprobiont

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