Grow & Parameter Agar & Substrat Identify Consume Studies & Data

Agaricus subrufescens (Agaricus blazei murill)

Description

“The Brazilian Almond Mushroom ( Agariucus subrufescens, syn. A. brasiliensis, A. blezei murill) is a type of mushroom belonging to the Agaricaceae family. It gets its name from the almond-like scent of its fruiting body.

One distinctive feature of Agaricus subrufescens is its almost cubic-shaped cap. This mushroom is a secondary decomposer, meaning it prefers a substrate that has been partially broken down by bacteria, such as horse manure or compost.”

© Denis A. Zabin (protokute)

Apart from being a delicious culinary mushroom, Agaricus subrufescens has the potential to be recognized as a medicinal mushroom in the future. It has already been widely regarded as such in alternative medicine. Since 1993, it has been commercially cultivated and sold as an edible mushroom in Asia and South America.

It is also known by other names such as sun mushroom and mushroom of life.

Properties

Agaricus subrufescens is known for producing beta glucans, specifically 1-3 and 1-6 D-fractions of beta glucans. These polysaccharides are currently being investigated for their potential to enhance the immune system. Studies have reported beta glucan levels in this mushroom of up to 14%. The unique polysaccharides in Agaricus subrufescens stimulate natural killer cells, which can selectively target and destroy tumor cells. Additionally, the cultivated mycelium of this mushroom produces compounds that have anti-tumor properties, as documented by Mizuno (1999). Furthermore, the mycelium releases a yellowish metabolite with bactericidal properties.

Due to its significant content of b-D-glucan, Agaricus subrufescens is utilized in alternative cancer therapy, particularly in Japan and California. However, there is a lack of well-designed studies that directly compare the therapeutic effects of isolated ingredients, complete mushroom extracts, and epidemiological data. Additionally, the toxicological aspects of this mushroom have not been adequately studied.

Growing

How to Grow Agaricus subrufescens?

Agaricus subrufescens can be grown in both outdoor and indoor beds using a specific mushroom substrate. The substrate is created through a process called double hot rotting, which involves combining straw with poultry and horse manure, as well as lime or gypsum. Alternatively, experiments have been conducted using fermented straw or garden compost. There are other methods and substrates that can be explored for cultivation.

PH Levels

Agar Culture Media

5.5 – 6.5

Spawn Run

6.0 – 7.0

Fruiting Phase

6.0 – 7.5

Harvest

none

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Growth table A. subrufescens

S
P
A
W
N

P
R
I
M
O
R
D
I
A

F
R
U
I
T
I
N
G

Temp °C
21-27 21-24 24-27
Relative Humidity %
90-100 80-90 75-85
Duration d
28-90 18-24 4-8
CO2 ppm
>5000 400-800 <8000
FAE per h
0-1 5-7 4-8
Light lux
1000-2000 1000-2000

How to Fruit Agaricus subrufescens?

For sterile conditions, enriched substrates based on peat, straw, and cereal can be used, such as the modified till substrate. Another method, known as Huhnke’s method, involves sterilizing the material first and then allowing it to ferment. Agaricus subrufescens, like other secondary decomposers found in soil, benefits from a large-scale cultivation system. Using beds, whether indoors or outdoors, is the preferred choice to achieve good yields.

Sterile pouch cultures using modified till substrate can also be employed, although they may not yield as much. Some growers find success by subjecting the culture to a cold shock just before opening it. A crucial factor for successful breeding is the quality of the covering material, known as casing. In trials conducted by experienced growers, a simple, nutrient-rich, dark garden soil that has been sieved and pasteurized has proven to be the best casing material. Professionals often pre-inoculate their covering material with the Agaricus subrufescens culture, which speeds up the cultivation process.

Cropping Cycle

Inoculation Phase

Transfer mycelium from agar plates to sterilized grain spawn (e.g., rye, millet). This typically takes 2-4 weeks for the mycelium to fully colonize the grain.

Spawn Run

Transfer colonized grain spawn to a bulk substrate (e.g., a mix of pasteurized straw, manure, and/or coco coir). This phase can take 2-4 weeks.

Fruiting Phase

Transfer the colonized substrate to fruiting conditions (high humidity, fresh air exchange, light). Pinning usually occurs within 2-3 weeks, with mature mushrooms appearing in another 3-4 weeks.

Harvest

Typically, 3-4 weeks after pinning, mushrooms are ready for harvest. Usually we do 2-4 flushes.

How to make Agar Culture Media?

Agar A. subrufescens

  1. Dissolve the malt extract and agar in distilled water.
  2.  Sterilize the solution by autoclaving at 121°C for 15-20 minutes.
  3. Pour the sterilized media into petri dishes or other containers under sterile conditions.
  4. The Yeast is optional, but you can add it to any recipe for nutritions, same for Peptone.

Malt Yeast Peptone Agar

MYPA

Malt Extract: 10g
Yeast Extract: 4g
Peptone: 5g
Agar: 15g
Distilled Water: 1L

Malt Extract Agar

MEA

Malt Extract: 20g
Agar: 15g
Distilled Water: 1L

Malt Yeast Agar

MYA

Malt Extract: 10g
Yeast Extract: 5g
Agar: 15g
Distilled Water: 1L

Potato Dextrose Yeast Agar

PDYA

Potato Infusion: 200g (from boiling 200g of diced potatoes in 1L of water, then straining)

Dextrose: 20g
Yeast Extract: 5g
Agar: 15g
Distilled Water: 1L

Fruiting Containers

Trays

Open trays placed in a high-humidity chamber or tent.

Modified Monotubs

Most woodloving species need more FAE then an simple Monotub can provide.

Martha Tents

Small greenhouse-style grow tents with shelves, often equipped with humidifiers and fans for optimal conditions.

Shotgun Chamber

Transparent plastic containers with drilled holes for ventilation and a dry agent at the bottom.

Substrate

Its a secondary decomposer and loves nitrogen- enriched composts or pasteurized substrates with wood

Nitrogenous additives

urea, bran, ammonium nitrate, chicken manure

Biological efficiencie

This measures the weight of fresh mushrooms harvested compared to the dry weight of the substrate. For Agaricus subrufescens, BE can vary widely depending on growing conditions but generally ranges from 75% to 200%.

Example Calculation: If 1 kg of dry substrate yields 2 kg of fresh mushrooms, the BE is 200%

Sometimes we miss a piece

Growing Chracteristics

Agaricus subrufescens, also known as the Brazilian Almond Mushroom, can be found growing individually or in clusters. It plays a vital role as a subsequent decomposer in the ecosystem.

Identification

Natrual Habitat

It was previously believed that Agaricus subrufescens, commonly known as the Brazilian Almond Mushroom or Agaricus brasiliensis, originated exclusively in the pristine forests of Brazil. However, recent findings have disproven this notion. This fascinating mushroom species can also be found in other regions, including North America and Central Europe. In fact, Richard Eibl, a highly regarded mycologist, successfully identified it in North Rhine-Westphalia.

Agaricus subrufescens flourishes in environments characterized by nutrient-rich soil, well-composted soils, mixed woods, and forest edges. It exhibits a preference for warm climates and is frequently encountered in Mediterranean areas. The prime season for its growth extends from early summer to late autumn.

How to identify A. subrufescens

Its caramel-brown cap, often with a slight golden hue, distinguishes it. The convex cap grows between 1 to 6 centimeters in diameter, darkening as it dries. The stem (stipe) can reach up to 10 centimeters, slender but sometimes swollen at the base. Upon bruising, both cap and stem turn blue—the same color as its spore print

Identify A. subrufescens

Cap

7-25cm Ø
first convex, soon hemispheric, then broadly convex
light brown, red to darkbrown

Hymenium

first pale, soon gray then chocolate brown
free

Stipe

cylindrical
flesh thick, solid
tall
whitish and smooth, when bruised it quickly stains yellowish (ochraceous)

Veil

thin
hanging
quickly ephemeral

Spores

dark violet to (chocolate)brown
-(5,5-7,5 x 4-5 µm)
-basidia four-spored
-heterothallic matting system

Danger of confusion

Agaricus cappellianus, Agaricus langei, Agaricus moelleri, Agaricus silvaticus

Hyphae

mycelium striped lengthways, overlaid with radiation rizomorphs
cottony mycelial undergrowth
after one month of incubation on 2% MEA, rhizomorphic mycelia in culture produce hyphae aggregates and pseudoprimordia that do not enlarge to maturity
loosely aerial in age
mycelia often gives off a yellowish, almond-smelling metabolite

© Mandy Schubach (Spirit of Mandy)

Consuming

Gorumet Perception

Consume

Agaricus subrufescens has a slightly musty-sweet taste and is edible. Besides their amaretto-like odor, it haa delightful amaretto-like odor and a subtle, unobtrusive "musty" aroma that pleases gourmets around the globe. Can even be prepared as a dessert!

Smell

almond-like, mushroom-like

Taste

sweet, mild, a bit moldy, green nuts

Flesh

white-pink, from edge reddish discoloration, thick

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Nutritional content of 100g

moisture 9.88%
protein 39.3%
fat 1.8%
fiber 25.6%
ash 10.1%
carbohydrate 38.9%
phosphorus 939 mg
iron 18.2 mg
calcium 41.6 mg
vitamin B1 0.48 mg
vitamin B2 2.84 mg
ergosterol 345 mg
niacin 40.9 mg

Composition

This mushroom is an excellent source of protein, providing essential amino acids necessary for bodily functions. It is low in calories and fats, making it a healthy addition to various diets. The mushroom is also rich in dietary fiber, which supports digestive health and aids in maintaining a healthy weight.

In addition to its macronutrients, Agaricus subrufescens contains a variety of vitamins, including B vitamins such as B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), and B3 (niacin), which play crucial roles in energy metabolism. It is also a good source of vitamin D, which is important for bone health and immune function. The mineral content of this mushroom is noteworthy, with significant amounts of potassium, phosphorus, and magnesium, all of which are essential for maintaining various physiological processes.

Agaricus subrufescens is particularly renowned for its bioactive compounds, such as polysaccharides and β-glucans, which have been shown to boost the immune system and exhibit anti-cancer properties. It also contains antioxidants, including phenolic compounds, which help protect the body against oxidative stress and inflammation. The mushroom's combination of nutrients and bioactive compounds makes it a valuable food for promoting overall health and well-being.

Immunstärkende Inhaltsstoffe

Polysaccharide (β-Glucane)

Funktion: Diese komplexen Kohlenhydrate stärken das Immunsystem.

Nutzen: Sie sind bekannt für ihre anti-krebs Eigenschaften und unterstützen den Körper im Kampf gegen Tumore.

Lectine

Funktion: Proteine, die an spezifische Kohlenhydrate binden.

Nutzen: Sie haben immunmodulierende Effekte und können das Wachstum von Krebszellen hemmen.

Proteoglykane

Funktion: Moleküle, die Proteine und Kohlenhydrate kombinieren.

Nutzen: Sie unterstützen die Zellkommunikation und haben anti-tumorale Eigenschaften.

Antioxidative Inhaltsstoffe

Phenolische Verbindungen

Funktion: Antioxidantien, die freie Radikale neutralisieren.

Nutzen: Sie schützen die Zellen vor Schäden durch oxidative Stress und haben anti-inflammatorische Eigenschaften.

Selen

Funktion: Ein essentielles Spurenelement mit antioxidativer Wirkung.

Nutzen: Es unterstützt das Immunsystem und schützt vor Zellschäden.

Fettsäuren

Linolsäure

Funktion: Eine essenzielle Fettsäure, die in der Ernährung notwendig ist.

Nutzen: Sie hilft bei der Reduktion von Entzündungen und unterstützt die kardiovaskuläre Gesundheit.

Anti Diabetes

Proteoglykane

Funktion: Moleküle, die Proteine und Kohlenhydrate kombinieren.

Nutzen: Sie verbessern die Insulinsensitivität und regulieren den Blutzuckerspiegel, was sie zu einem wertvollen Inhaltsstoff für die Diabetesbehandlung macht.

Vitaminreiche Inhaltsstoffe

Ergosterol

Funktion: Ein Vorläufer von Vitamin D, der in Pilzen vorkommt.

Nutzen: Es unterstützt die Produktion von Vitamin D, das für gesunde Knochen und ein starkes Immunsystem wichtig ist.

Vitamin D2

Funktion: Ein essentielles Vitamin, das durch Ergosterol in Pilzen gebildet wird.

Nutzen: Es stärkt die Knochengesundheit und unterstützt das Immunsystem.

Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

Funktion: Ein Vitamin, das in Energiegewinnung und Zellwachstum involviert ist.

Nutzen: Es fördert die Hautgesundheit und unterstützt den Stoffwechsel.

Niacin (Vitamin B3)

Funktion: Ein Vitamin, das für die DNA-Reparatur und die Produktion von Steroidhormonen notwendig ist.

Nutzen: Es unterstützt die Hautgesundheit und den Energiestoffwechsel.

other names

Agaricus Blazei Murill, Jisongrong, Himematsutake, Kawariharatake, Cogumelo de Deus (Mushroom of God), Royal Sun Agaricus, Murills Agaricus, Agaricus subrufescens, ABM, A. brasiliensis, King Agaricus, Almond Portobello, Brasilianischer Mandel-Egerling, Sonnenpilz, Lebenspilz

Englisch
almond mushroom
Niederländisch
Bladhoopchampignon
Wissenschaftl. Name
Agaricus bambusae
Wissenschaftl. Name
Agaricus brasiliensis
Wissenschaftl. Name
Agaricus subrufescens

Taxonomical Hierarchy

Kingdom Fungi
Division Basidiomycota
Class Agaricomycetes
Order Agaricales
Family Agaricaceae
Genus Agaricus
Species A. subrufescens
Ecology saprotrophic

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